Help:Standards/Assembly/Type IIS


This page is still in draft. New information is currently being added to this page.

Motivation

With a Type IIS assembly method, multiple parts can be assembled easily and reliably in a single reaction, and this can be scaled further to create more complex genetic circuits quickly, efficiently, and affordably.

A Type IIS assembly method uses Type IIS restriction enzymes, which are offsite cutters; they cut DNA at a specific distance from their recognition site. This allows for specified overhangs left by the Type IIS enzymes, which when intentionally designed can allow for multiple DNA fragments to be assembled together in the correct order and orientation.

Example of the recognition site for BsaI, a Type IIS restriction enzyme. The green 'N's are the overhang created when the DNA is cut.



Currently, there are several Type IIS assembly standards in use, many of these were designed for specific purposes. iGEM believes strongly in standards, and as we approach Type IIS assembly methods we want to support one that we believe will be useful, reliable, long-lasting and widespread for the synthetic biology community. The Type IIS assembly standard that iGEM accepts is based on MoClo and Loop.


The technical specifications of iGEM Type IIS are laid out in the documentation below. This documentation will describe what makes a part compatible with the standard, and the requirements to create a sample of that part in Type IIS format.


Technical Specifications

Assembly Compatibility / Illegal Sites

Parts that are compatible with iGEM Type IIS must not contain the Bsa1 and Sap1 Type IIS recognition sequences. These two restriction enzymes are required for assembly. Parts that have these “illegal” recognition sites within their documented sequence are not compatible with the standard.

Enzyme Type Sequence
BsaI Illegal 5'...GGTCTC...3'
3'...CCAGAG...5'
SapI Illegal 5'...GCTCTTC...3'
3'...CGAGAAG...5'

Note: In order to check for Type IIS compatibility, you will need to use a software tool like Benchling. However, we will shortly update the sequence and features box to check for compatibility when you've added a part's sequence to the Registry.


Why were these restriction enzymes selected?

One benefit of Type IIS assembly standards is that the assembly method requires only two restriction enzymes for creation of basic parts (Level 0s), assembly of composite parts or transcriptional units (Level 1s), and multiple transcriptional units (Level 2+). Fewer illegal restriction sites means it will be easier to make compatible parts. As an example, BioBrick RFC 10 has four illegal restriction sites. Other Type IIS assembly standards may require different Type IIS restriction enzymes (AarI, Bsmb1, Bbs1, etc.), but in order to ensure ease of making parts compatible, the iGEM Type IIS standard only designates Bsa1 and Sap1 as “illegal” restriction sites. Users may choose to avoid these other Type IIS restriction enzymes in their part design at their discretion.

Why Bsa1?

Most, if not all, Type IIS assembly standards use Bsa1 for basic parts (Level 0) parts, so this ensures maximum compatibility.

Why Sap1?

In addition to Bsa1, Loop Assembly requires Sap1. While this restriction enzyme site only leaves a 3bp overhang, it has a 7bp recognition site, which theoretically will make it rarer, and make standardization of parts easier. For iGEM Type IIS, we have also modified the PhytoBricks Universal Acceptor plasmid, so that users can PCR their Level 0 parts into the iGEM Type IIS Universal Acceptor using Sap1. Cost analysis [link] has shown that Sap1, while initially more expensive than BioBrick enzymes, is within the price range of other Type IIS enzymes, and when scaled up to several rounds of multi-part assembly is affordable.

What about the BioBrick restriction enzymes?

Your iGEM Type IIS parts do not need to be BioBrick compatible. Your BioBrick parts do not need to be Type IIS compatible. However, if your part is compatible with both, iGEM and future users will be able to synthesize samples in both formats.


Fusion Sites

iGEM's Type IIS assembly standard specifies fusion sites that flank four basic parts types (Level 0) when cut with Bsa1.

Fusion Site 5' Part Type Fusion Site 3'
GGAG Promoter TACT
TACT 5'UTR AATG
AATG CDS GCTT
GCTT Terminator CGCT

Why were these fusion sites selected?

These fusion sites were outlined in the original MoClo paper (Weber, et al. 2011). They have since been adopted in other Type IIS assembly standards. As an example, these MoClo fusion sites completely overlap with the PhytoBricks standard. These fusion sites have also been tested against NEB’s 4bp ligation fidelity tool [link], finding them to be completely reliable when used as a set in a reaction.

To ensure maximum compatibility, and because of a long history of use, iGEM has adopted these fusion sites for the following basic parts. As a note, iGEM has elected to not define the fusion sites within a CDS region (AGGT, for MoClo).


Prefix and Suffix

Prefix Part Type Suffix
5' GGTCTC N GGAG
CCAGAG N CCTC
Promoter
Promoter
TACT N GAGACC 3'
ATGA N CTCTGG
5' GGTCTC N TACT
CCAGAG N ATGA
5'UTR
5'UTR
AATG N GAGACC 3'
TTAC N CTCTGG
5' GGTCTC N AATG
CCAGAG N TTAC
CDS
CDS
GCTT N GAGACC 3'
CGAA N CTCTGG
5' GGTCTC N GCTT
CCAGAG N CGAA
Terminator
Terminator
CGCT N GAGACC 3'
GCGA N CTCTGG


References & Resources

Software & Tools

Benchling


Type IIS Assembly Methods

  • A Modular Cloning System for Standardized Assembly of Multigene Constructs
  • Loop assembly: a simple and open system for recursive fabrication of DNA circuits
  • More About Assembly Standards

    Help:Assembly Standards || Assembly Compatibility || Supported Assembly Systems
    BioBrick RFC[10] | BioBrick BB-2 RFC[12] | Berkeley RFC[21] | Silver RFC[23] | Freiburg RFC[25] | Type_IIS RFC[1000]