Gold binding polypeptide (GBP)
Gold binding polypeptide (GBP) can be used as an anchor component, robustly binding to a gold surface and it is consisted of 14 amino acids (MHGKTQATSGTIOS) triplication (Braun et al., 2002; Brown et al., 2000).
The strong coupling property of GBP onto a gold patterned substrate was delineated in a previous investigation (Tamerler et al., 2006). it is, nevertheless, unclear how GBP binds to the gold substrate (Braun et al., 2002). Intriguingly, Fenter et al. (1994) clarified that the sequences of GBP do not include any cysteine residue leading to a covalent bond with a gold substrate via a thiol linkage. Also, an important role in GBP binding to the gold substrate seems to be caused by the polar groups exposed via the amino acids (M, K, T, Q, and S) residues. Considering the concept above, the anitparallel beta-sheet sturcture of GBP might be linked to the gold surface via hydroxyl groups. Hydroxyl group and the amine ligands of GBP seem to percieve the structure of atomic lattice on the gold surface (Tamerler et al., 2006). Thus, the binding peculiarity of GBP can be an useful avenue, substantially contributing to the biosensor development.
We created a vector capable of producing the GBP. The DNA fragment encoding GBP was obtained by PCR amplification using the primers (GBP F1 and R1) and the plasmid pSB1C3-GBP-ProG as a template. The restriction enzyme sites were underlined.
GBP F1 (Forward) – TCTAGAATGGGAAAAACCCAGGCA
GBP R1 (Reverse) – ACTAGTAAATTCGGATTGTAT
The PCR product of the GBP-coding fragment was ligated with the TA vector. The ligated vector was digested with XbaI and SpeI restriction enzymes, and then ligated into the enzymes site of pSB1C3 backbone plasmid. We checked appropriate insertion of the fragment in the vector by gel electrophoresis after reaction with XbaI and SpeI to verify the exact band scale. Figure 1 showed that lane 1, 2, 3, is proper orientation producing the GBP.
 Braun, R., Sarikaya, M., Schulten, K. (2002). Genetically engineered gold-binding polypeptides: structure prediction and molecular dynamics. J. Biomater. Sci. Polym. Ed. 13(7), 747-757
 Brown, S., Sarikaya, M., Johnson, E. (2000). A genetic analysis of crystal growth. J. Mol. Biol. 299(3), 725-735.
 Fenter, P., Eberhardt, A., Eisenberger, P. (1994). Self-Assembly of n-Alkyl Thiols as Disulfides on Au(111). Science 266(5188), 1216–1218.
 Seker, U.O., Wilson, B., Kulp, J.L., Evans, J.S., Tamerler, C., Sarikaya, M. (2014). Thermodynamics of Engineered Gold Binding Peptides: Establishing the Structure−Activity Relationships. Biomacromolecules 15(7), 2369-2377.
 Tamerler, C., Duman, M., Oren, E.E., Gungormus, M., Xiong, X., Kacar, T., Parviz, B.A., Sarikaya, M. (2006). Materials specificity and directed assembly of a gold-binding peptide. Small 2(11), 1372–1378.
Sequence and Features
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