Usage and Biology
GABA is synthesized from glutamate in the reaction catalyzed by L-glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) catalyzes decarboxylation of glutamate to gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). We have created the device for overexpression of GAD and we suggest to investigate the therapeutic potential of administration of GABA-overexpressing probiotics to patients with decreased GABA levels.
GABA is the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain and decreased GABA levels have been linked to depression and anxiety . Several species of gut bacteria have been shown to produce GABA  and metabolomics analysis has shown that the gut luminal GABA levels in ex-germfree mice are considerably higher than those observed in germfree mice  . The role of microbiota-derived GABA in gut-brain signalling can be supported by the presence of GABA receptors in gut epithelial cells .
The positive effects of GABA-producing species in the gut on the emotional behaviour of the host have been previously documented. In one study, administration of milk enriched in GABA-producing Lactobacillus brevis FPA 3709 had antidepressant effect on mice . Another study has shown that ingestion of Lactobacillus rhamnosus alters GABA mRNA expression in the host's brain and reduces the stress-induced and depression-related behaviour .
Sequence and Features
- 10COMPATIBLE WITH RFC
- 12COMPATIBLE WITH RFC
- 21COMPATIBLE WITH RFC
- 23COMPATIBLE WITH RFC
- 25Illegal AgeI site found at 658
Illegal AgeI site found at 718
- 1000COMPATIBLE WITH RFC
 Kalueff, A. and Nutt, D. (2007). Role of GABA in anxiety and depression. Depression and Anxiety, 24(7), pp.495-517.
 Cryan, J. and Dinan, T. (2012). Mind-altering microorganisms: the impact of the gut microbiota on brain and behaviour. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 13(10), pp.701-712
 Matsumoto, M., Kibe, R., Ooga, T., Aiba, Y., Kurihara, S., Sawaki, E., Koga, Y. and Benno, Y. (2012). Impact of Intestinal Microbiota on Intestinal Luminal Metabolome. Sci. Rep., 2.
 Li, Y., Xiang, Y., Lu, W., Liu, C. and Li, J. (2012). A novel role of intestine epithelial GABAergic signaling in regulating intestinal fluid secretion. AJP: Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology, 303(4), pp.G453-G460.
 Ko, C., Lin, H. and Tsai, G. (2013). Gamma-aminobutyric acid production in black soybean milk by Lactobacillus brevis FPA 3709 and the antidepressant effect of the fermented product on a forced swimming rat model. Process Biochemistry, 48(4), pp.559-568.
 Bravo, J., Forsythe, P., Chew, M., Escaravage, E., Savignac, H., Dinan, T., Bienenstock, J. and Cryan, J. (2011). Ingestion of Lactobacillus strain regulates emotional behavior and central GABA receptor expression in a mouse via the vagus nerve. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 108(38), pp.16050-16055