Usage and Biology
Choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) catalyses synthesis of acetylcholine from choline and acetyl-CoA. Acetylcholine is a versatile neurotransmitter that has mediates signalling in central nervous system and brain as well as peripheral nervous system. Acetylcholine has been implicated in cognition, memory, and learning functions . Acetylcholine is also a principal neurotransmitter in vagal nerve, which connects brain to digestive system . Acetylcholine released at the efferent vagus nerve endings decreases the excessive production of inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) . These inflammatory cytokines are elevated in patients with major depression  and have been shown to induce depressive-like behaviour in mice  and humans .
In humans, ChAT expression requires microbiota-dependent signalling and does not begin until microbial gut colonization after birth. . Hence, imbalances in gut microflora can lead to disrupted acetylcholine activity, which has been strongly linked to depression. We propose to explore the acetylcholine-producing probiotics as a solution for restoring the proper functioning of cholinergic system in patients with depression and other psychiatric diseases.
Sequence and Features
- 10COMPATIBLE WITH RFC
- 12Illegal NheI site found at 682
- 21Illegal XhoI site found at 303
Illegal XhoI site found at 1770
- 23COMPATIBLE WITH RFC
- 25Illegal NgoMIV site found at 1095
- 1000Illegal BsaI.rc site found at 1765
 Klinkenberg, I., Sambeth, A. and Blokland, A. Acetylcholine and attention. Behavioural Brain Research, 2011, 221(2), pp.430-442.
 Lleó, A., Greenberg, S. and Growdon, J. Current Pharmacotherapy for Alzheimer's Disease. Annual Review of Medicine, 2006, 57(1), pp.513-533
 Dowlati, Y., Herrmann, N., Swardfager, W., Liu, H., Sham, L., Reim, E. and Lanctôt, K. (2010). A Meta-Analysis of Cytokines in Major Depression. Biological Psychiatry, 67(5), pp.446-457.
 Larson, S. and Dunn, A. Behavioral Effects of Cytokines. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 2001, 15(4), pp.371-387
 Capuron, L., Ravaud, A., Neveu, P., Miller, A., Maes, M. and Dantzer, R. Association between decreased serum tryptophan concentrations and depressive symptoms in cancer patients undergoing cytokine therapy. Molecular Psychiatry, 2002, 7(5), pp.468-473
 Reardon, C., Duncan, G., Brustle, A., Brenner, D., Tusche, M., Olofsson, P., Rosas-Ballina, M., Tracey, K. and Mak, T. Lymphocyte-derived ACh regulates local innate but not adaptive immunity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2013, 110(4), pp.1410-1415.