TPH1 (Tryptophan hydroxylase 1)
With the aim to address serotonin deficiency and dysregulation of gut-brain communication in patients with mental health disorders and we have developed and characterized the biobrick that overexpresses human tryptophan hydroxylase for 5-HTP production. This is the intermediate construct consisting of the human TPH1 gene alone. This construct was used in the assembly of BBa_K1598002.
Usage and Biology
Serotonin is an essential metabolite, key neurotransmitter in mood regulation and a target of vast majority of antidepressant drugs. The majority of serotonin in the body is produced by enterochromaffin cells located in the gut . Metabolomics study has revealed that serotonin levels in blood plasma are 2.8 fold higher in conventional as opposed to germ-free mice , suggesting that the interactions between host and gut microflora play crucial role in regulating the production of serotonin and functioning of serotonergic system. The rate-limiting step of synthesis of serotonin is catalyzed by Tryptophan hydroxylase, TPH, which converts tryptophan, an essential amino acid, into 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) . It was shown that germ-free mice exhibit decreased expression of tryptophan hydroxylase, the rate-limiting enzyme in serotonin synthesis, in enterochromaffin cells and decreased level of serotonin in the colon and the blood and that both recolonization of the gut and supplementation with 5-HTP, a product of TPH, restore the serotonin levels .
Sequence and Features
- 10COMPATIBLE WITH RFC
- 12COMPATIBLE WITH RFC
- 21COMPATIBLE WITH RFC
- 23COMPATIBLE WITH RFC
- 25COMPATIBLE WITH RFC
- 1000COMPATIBLE WITH RFC
You can access the characterization data for this part cloned into Lac inducible expression casette here
 Manocha, M. and Khan, W. Serotonin and GI Disorders: An Update on Clinical and Experimental Studies. Clinical and Translational Gastroenterology, 2012, 3(4), p.e13
 Wikoff, W., Anfora, A., Liu, J., Schultz, P., Lesley, S., Peters, E. and Siuzdak, G. Metabolomics analysis reveals large effects of gut microflora on mammalian blood metabolites. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2009, 106(10), pp.3698-3703
 O’Mahony, S., Clarke, G., Borre, Y., Dinan, T. and Cryan, J. Serotonin, tryptophan metabolism and the brain-gut-microbiome axis. Behavioural Brain Research, 2015, 277, pp.32-48.
 Yano, J., Yu, K., Donaldson, G., Shastri, G., Ann, P., Ma, L., Nagler, C., Ismagilov, R., Mazmanian, S. and Hsiao, E. Indigenous Bacteria from the Gut Microbiota Regulate Host Serotonin Biosynthesis. Cell, 2015, 161(2), pp.264-276.