Tet prom. with Exendin-4 with a N-terminal secretion tag and a C-terminal cell penetrating peptide
Our modified Exendin-4, a GLP-1 anologon and incretin mimetica, put under the Control of the TetR promoter. Therefore, ist Expression can be regulated with the Expression of TetR which will inhibit the Expression of Exendin-4.
In the iGEM Team Tübingen 2019 project, Exendin-4 was used as a therapeutic for the treatment of Type 2 Diabetes mellitus with probiotics. Exendin-4 is, in contrast to its human analogue more stable and not as easily degraded by DPP-IV peptidase. Thus, a suitable candidate for a therapeutic. This part is a composite, which allows for the secretion of Exendin-4 and a cell penetrating peptide -Penetratin- for the delivery of Exendin-4 into the circulatory system. The secretion may be inhibited by Tetracycline.
Usage and Biology
Exendin-4 is used as a treatment for Type 2 Diabetes mellitus. Its human analogue gLP-1 originates from the prepeptide proglucagon, which is cleaved into, among others, GLP-1 (1-37) by prohormone convertase 1 (PC1) (Lim et al. 2006). The inactive GLP-1 (1-37) is then processed into its active form GLP-1 (7-37) by an endopeptidase. This active form is secreted and diffuses across the basal lamina and enters the lamina propria, where it is taken up into the capillaries, reaching the circulatory system (Lim et al. 2006).The glucagon like peptide binds to a GPCR on the pancreatic beta cells, which will cause an intracellular cascade activating an Adenylate Cyclase. If ATP is available within the cell, which means if the cell has already taken up sugar and run through glycolysis, cAMP will be produced (Jens Juul Holst, 2007). Overall, this will result in prolonged depolarization and calcium ion influx and consequently more secretion of insulin from the beta cells (Jens Juul Holst, 2007). This increase in insulin secretion can overcome the relative lack of insulin in the periphery of Type 2 Diabetes mellitus(Jens Juul Holst, 2007).
Exendin-4 and GLP-1 do not only have a direct effect on the pancreas, but also decrease gastrointestinal motility and secretion, hunger and the emptying of the stomach, thus helping in weight reduction (Jens Juul Holst, 2007). Additionally, they are considered to be cardioprotective(Jens Juul Holst, 2007). This is very important for the therapy, since many cases of Type 2 DM are caused by an unhealthy lifestyle and obesity(Jens Juul Holst, 2007).
Sequence and Features
- 10COMPATIBLE WITH RFC
- 12COMPATIBLE WITH RFC
- 21INCOMPATIBLE WITH RFCIllegal BglII site found at 312
- 23COMPATIBLE WITH RFC
- 25COMPATIBLE WITH RFC
- 1000COMPATIBLE WITH RFC
- Holst, Jens Juul. The physiology of glucagon-like peptide 1. Physiological reviews 87.4 (2007): 1409-1439.
- Lim, Gareth E., Brubaker, Patricia L. Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 Secretion by the L-Cell. (2006). 10.2337/db06-S020. Diabetes. p. S70-S77
- Copley, Kathrin, et al. "Investigation of exenatide elimination and its in vivo and in vitro degradation." Current drug metabolism 7.4 (2006): 367-374.