ndhC 5-UTR (Spinacia oleracea)
This part was created using the Phytobrick Entry Vector with GFP dropout BBa_K2560002 and was designed to be compatible with the Phytobrick assembly standard. All parts created this year were acquired via PCR from purified DNA samples using a CTAB based method , by primer annealing, primer annealing, and extension reactions or synthesized via IDT/Twist.
All parts this year were produced to be used in the chloroplast of different plant species. For the characterization of these parts they were tested in chloroplast cell-free systems (ccfs) from either the same species or they were tested in ccfs from other plant species. Plastid parts offer the benefit of highly conserved regulatory sequences that can be used across species. Although characterizing chloroplast parts is a huge effort, in literature, it has been shown that plastid parts can be used across species to drive gene expression . We believe that based on this knowledge we can create valuable parts that can be screened for activity in our system with the final goal of building a variety of different parts. This collection shall help combat unwanted recombination events in vivo that sometimes impede the successful functionality of the genetic design.
The 5’ untranslated region is a major decisive factor for initiation and regulation of translation in the chloroplast. Although, plastids originate from cyanobacteria and their translation machinery being similar to most bacteria, their translation initiation mechanism is not only regulated by the availability of a Shine Dalgarno sequence directly upstream of the start codon. In addition, it has been shown that gene expression in the chloroplast can also be regulated by specific secondary structure folding . Another special mechanism by which the plant controls the expression of genes in the chloroplast is via the utilization of specific pentatricopeptide repeats (PPR) proteins. These peptides can bind specific RNA sequences and trim pre-mRNA. By doing this, the protein protects the maturing RNA from degradation from endonucleases found in the chloroplast. In the past years there have been many studies investigating individual PPR proteins and their interactions with RNA in the chloroplast   .
Characterization & Measurement
A major difficulty when working with cell free technology is the reproducibility of reliable data generation. While one batch of cell free extract generation might be perfectly suited for efficient protein production, other batches might not perform that well. Because our chloroplast extracts were prepared from leaves, each preparation could have contained distinct compositions of differentiated leaf cells (for example: mesophyll, palisade parenchyma and bundle sheath) from plants that experienced microclimatic variations. This in turns causes the individual difference in expression strength, making it impossible to quantitatively compare data across measurements.
Dual Luciferase normalization
To tackle the aforementioned issue, we designed our measurement construct to harbor two individual luciferase cassettes. A standardized cassette that includes the Firefly luciferase (Fluc) is included in every measurement construct in order to have a reference point to which we can normalize our gained data to . The second cassette consists of a Nano Luciferase (NLuc) harboring a placeholder part in either the promoter, 5’UTR or 3’UTR position. This enables quick exchange of a series of lvl0 parts allowing for high throughput characterization of genetic parts.
For the characterization of the parts produced this year, we made use of Golden Gate placeholder parts introduced by iGEM Marburg 2019: BBa_K3228060, BBa_K3228061 and BBa_K3228063. These placeholder parts can be used in assemblies to subsequently replace it with another part of the same type in a secondary Golden Gate assembly. A placeholder can rationalize large-scale assemblies: Instead of building each plasmid from scratch, a placeholder is used to generate an entry vector.
Marburg collection 3.0
We proudly present the third expansion of the Marburg collection . The Marburg collection is a Golden Gate based toolbox containing various parts that are compatible with the PhytoBrick system and MoClo. Compared to other bacterial toolboxes, the Marburg Collection shines with superior flexibility. The collection overcame the rigid paradigm of plasmid construction - thinking in fixed backbone and insert categories - by achieving complete de novo assembly of plasmids.
36 connectors facilitate flexible cloning of multigene constructs and even allow for the inversion of individual transcription units.
The original Marburg Collection contains 123 parts in total, including: inducible promoters, reporters, fluorescence and epitope tags, oris, resistance cassettes and genome engineering tools. The toolbox was constructed as a foundation for future iGEM teams to empower accelerated progression in their ambitious projects.
Our collection includes genetic parts suitable for use in the chloroplast. Among parts from the chloroplast of Nicotiana tabacum, we built parts from the chloroplast of Spinacia oleracea, Oryza sativa,Triticum aestivum and Quercus robur. With our contribution, we aim to accelerate research in the field of plastid engineering.
Sequence and Features
- 10COMPATIBLE WITH RFC
- 12COMPATIBLE WITH RFC
- 21COMPATIBLE WITH RFC
- 23COMPATIBLE WITH RFC
- 25COMPATIBLE WITH RFC
- 1000COMPATIBLE WITH RFC
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